Browse Primary Sources
Locate primary sources, including images, objects, media, and texts. Annotations by scholars contextualize sources.

Artwork by Calixto Mamaní

Calixto Mamaní was an Argentine artist from the city of Salta, in the north of the country. His work emphasized the influence of the Incas, the indigenous peoples who ruled over much of the Andes Mountain region before the Spaniards arrived. These masks likely provide an example of this theme in his work.

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The Cathedral of Buenos Aires

The Catedral Metropolitana de Buenos Aires is the principal Catholic church in the capital city of Argentina. Although construction began around 1580, the church underwent a long building process, with expansions and repairs occurring over the next three-hundred years. It was built by the Spanish colonial government in the main town square, today called the Plaza de mayo.

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“Mexican Officials Kick On Women in Knickers, Do not allow Oklahoma Tourists to Enter Mexico in Plus Fours," Mexico City, 14 July 1924

Mexican Newspaper Reports on American Women Crossing the Border

This story appeared in the two-page daily English-language supplement to El Universal, Mexico City’s most authoritative newspaper at the time. The story told of Mexican officials refusing entry to a group of women from the United States who made repeated attempts to get into the country.

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Espacio de Arte Contemporáneo

This building is located in the city of Montevideo, the capital of Uruguay. Once used for a prison, it now operates as a contemporary art museum. The complex was built in 1889 in the style of panopticon, which features several branches all centered around one point. That design intended to provide better security.

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Portrait of Carlota Ferreira

This painting depicts a controversial figure in the history of Uruguay and Argentina. The subject is Carlota Ferreira, an upper-class woman born in Montevideo in 1838. She appears in fine clothing indicative of her social standing, such as her delicate white gloves and the gold jewelry that adorns her wrists. She was first married to Dr.

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Washington, D.C. Newspaper reporting on December 8, 1941 the events of Pearl Harbor

Newspaper Coverage of Pearl Harbor Bombing

When historians examine a particular story in a newspaper, they not only have to take into account the story's positioning on the page in relation to the other stories published that day, a way of getting a sense of the importance the editors assigned to the story, but also how a certain story has played out over several days in the same newspaper.

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Photograph of five men standing

Hangzhou elites in 1935

The image shows an eclectic group of elites in Hangzhou in 1935, including Shanghainese gangster-businessmen Du Yuesheng and Zhang Xiaolin, Peking Opera star Mei Lanfang, Mayor of Hangzhou Zhou Xiangxian, and Japanese Consul at Hangzhou Yuzo Matsumura. Mei, Du, and Zhang were visiting Hangzhou to gather and donate funds for flood and poverty relief in the region.

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Photograph of about 20 soldiers posing in front of a building

Chinese Troops during the Xinhai Revolution

Image of Chinese troops dispatched by the Shanghai daotai of the collapsing Qing Dynasty to protect Xujiahui during the Xinhai Revolution.

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Front page of a newspaper in Chinese

Chamber of Commerce Newspaper from Guangzhouwan, China

The image is of the front page of a newspaper (商業旬報 Shangye xunbao) published in 1934 by the Chamber of Commerce in Guangzhouwan (廣州灣商會 Guangzhouwan shanghui). Guangzhouwan was a territory on the Leizhou Peninsula in southern China that the French Republic leased from the Qing Dynasty at the end of the nineteenth century.

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Image of the letter. Description in annotation.

Letter to Council Women

In a 1960 letter, fourth national president of the National Council of Negro Women Dorothy Height reports back to the Council on her trip to Sierra Leone. She served as both participant and facilitator in what she described as the first meeting of West African women including Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Ghana, and Liberia.

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