Close-up of the bull seal from the Indus Valley Civilization

A History of the World in 100 Objects

Overall A History of the World in 100 Objects is a great resource to teach world history through visual culture in an accessible and succinct format for both school and college-level classes.
Thumbnail image shows an ruins of an ancient temple with 6 tiers

A PreColumbian Portfolio: An Archive of Photographs

Each database record includes a caption, a brief (about 20-word) description, and information on the culture associated with the artifact, such as Maya, Olmec, or Zapotec.

Advice to Bride and Groom (versus 14 and 18)


Plutarch’s Advice to a Bride and Groom reveals the author’s views that submissiveness is the proper behavior for a Roman patrician’s wife, which reflects the general gender norm of ancient Roman culture. The wife ought to mimic the husband’s mood at all times: to be happy when he is happy and serious when he is serious. The wife ought to lose her own personality and become a... Read More »

A woman kneels and holds a piece of stone at an archeological site

Analyzing Material Objects


The modules in Methods present case studies that demonstrate how scholars interpret different kinds of historical evidence in world history. This module developed by historian Daniel Waugh explores how historians interpret material objects to better understand the past. Examples of objects include Turkish water jugs and Byzantine coins among others. Waugh introduces the kinds of questions... Read More »

Analyzing Music


Everywhere you go, there it is.

Even when we are not listening, music is around us. It blares from radios and headphones, kicks off sporting events, energizes crowds at demonstrations, and intrudes on our shopping experiences. Just now, a tune tinkling from a passing ice-cream truck interrupted the writing of these words. The commercial marketing of recorded music has been a fact of... Read More »

Thumbnail image of statue

Ancient Greek Adolescent Girls at Play


This small (5.5 inches high) terracotta sculpture was made in Greek southern Italy in the late fourth century BCE. It depicts two adolescent girls playing the game of "knucklebones" (astragaloi in Greek). The game was usually played like the modern game of "jacks": one threw the knucklebones in the air and attempted to catch as many as possible. They were also used like modern "dice." Each of... Read More »

Ancient Greek Girl Athlete


This unusual bronze figurine of a female runner was possibly made in or near Sparta, Greece, between 520-500 BCE. Ancient Sparta was the only Greek city-state that provided girls with public schooling including physical education. Girls were praised for their swiftness and likened to prized racehorses in choral songs (called partheneia) sung by girls' choruses in Sparta and elsewhere. Spartan... Read More »

Ancient History Encyclopedia logo- a letter A in a red box

Ancient History Encyclopedia

Overall this site is a fantastic resource in terms of the vast amounts of material collected for use. The site is primarily user-generated, with a system to ensure the entries uphold the website's management team's standards.

Antony’s Meeting with Cleopatra from “Life of Antony”


Cleopatra’s claim to the Egyptian throne very much resided in her relationship and alliance with Caesar. Upon his death in the Senate, Cleopatra had lost her guarantor. Antony’s arrival in Egypt provided a second opportunity for her to secure her throne through a powerful alliance. This text also describes Cleopatra’s machinations to seduce Antony, although in this case there is more of an... Read More »

Aristotle’s Metaphysics


Metaphysics, written around 350 BCE, is among Greek philosohper Aristotle's most notable works. The text includes an excerpt from part seven of the ten part work.

This source is a part of the Diversity and Change in Greco-Roman Religious Beliefs... Read More »