Browse Primary Sources
Newspaper written in French

Excerpt from Courrier of Avignon

This paper is from September 1770 and at that time France had two kinds of newspapers, those run by the state that were censored and also papers published beyond the borders of France that had licenses to get in but could that be they could be revoked at any time. With the foreign papers, then, there was a kind of negotiation. “If you don’t say this, we’ll let you in.

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Handwritten document in Spanish

Renunciation case against Gertrudis de Escobar, Mexico, 1659

This document is the proceedings of an 1659 Inquisition case brought against a 14 year old girl. The girl, named Gertrudis de Escobar, was accused of the crime of renouncing God. Gertrudis de Escobar was the child of a black person and a white person, termed at that time a mulata. Renouncing God was a fairly common crime that blacks and mulattoes were accused of.

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Table of information in German

Census of 1910 tuberculosis data

Census data is one way for historians to better understand the lives of average people who otherwise might be largely invisible to scholars. This excerpt from the 1910 census conducted by the Hapsburg Monarchy. The census data was collected for most towns and cities throughout the Monarchy every few years from between 1880 and 1910.

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Record of Conversation between Representative of the Opposition Roundtable and Boris Stukalin

In the summer of 1989, representatives of the Opposition Roundtable in Hungary met with Boris Stukalin, the Soviet ambassador in Budapest, to discuss the country's political situation.

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Minutes of a Meeting of the Presidium of Citizens' Parliamentary Club

In early June 1989, Poland held its first semi-free elections since the inception of Communist Party rule in the post-World War II era. Poles indicated strongly their anti-Communist and pro-Solidarity sentiments, as evidenced by the solid defeat of Communism in this election.

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Moscow Embassy Cable, If Solidarity Takes Charge, What Will the Soviets Do?

In June 1989, Poland held its first semi-free elections in which the Communist Party was overwhelmingly defeated by opposition leaders. Following the election, U.S. officials were elated about the prospects of democratization in Poland as well as concerned about the potential response from the Soviet Union.

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Secretary of State Cable, Solidarity-Government Dialogue

In June 1989, Poland held its first semi-free elections since the inception of communism after World War II, in which the Communist Party was soundly defeated by the opposition. Following this historic election, ongoing negotiations took place between Communist officials and new leaders in an effort to create stability and ensure that the transition was smooth.

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Warsaw Embassy Cable, Conversation with General Kiszczak

For the United States government, the rapid changes unfolding in Poland were a source of hope and excitement but also considerable anxiety. In principle, American diplomats could only welcome the prospect of pro-American, pro-market Solidarity politicians playing a key role in a new Polish government.

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Minutes of the Meeting of the Polish Citizens' Parliamentary Club

Poland's first semi-free elections in early June 1989 indicated Poles' strongly anti-Communist and pro-Solidarity sentiments, as evidenced by the solid defeat of Communism. Following this historic election, the newly elected pro-Solidarity parliamentary leaders formed the Citizens' Parliamentary Club, in which they debated about the future of Poland's political system.

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Minutes from a Meeting of the Presidium of the Citizens' Parliamentary Club

In June 1989, Poland held its first semi-free elections since the beginning of Communist Party rule following World War II, in which Communism was soundly defeated by Solidarity activists. Shortly after this election, the newly elected leaders of the opposition formed the Citizens' Parliamentary Club through which they debated potential government structures and the future road for Poland.

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